A standardized, collective list away from cross-fitness try determined each mixture of maternal forest and you may pollen donor, considering mature fresh fruit set, vegetables germination, and you can survivorship and you can development of seedlings. Per variety, mixed-model analysis out-of variance was utilized to assess the consequences regarding crossing therapy (fixed effect; having maternal forest provided once the a haphazard perception) on percentage of give-pollinated vegetation function mature fruit, prices regarding seeds germination and seedling survivorship, seedling proportions at the 1 year, and you may cumulative physical fitness. Numerous designs was in fact looked at playing with ANOVA: (a) together with all the treatments, (b) excluding imbalanced solutions, to permit review out-of telecommunications words, (c) without selfing cures (just like the maternal trees was in fact mostly otherwise entirely care about-incompatible), and you can (d) grouping every within this-Sinharaja outcrossing solutions to evaluate the result of contained in this- versus. between-forest crossing. The result from crossing point on each parameter try after that checked-out having fun with linear or quadratic regression investigation, according to shape of the partnership. Finally, per maternal forest, the consequences regarding nearest-neighbors and you will much time-length mating have been projected using indicator of biparental inbreeding despair and outbreeding anxiety, correspondingly, according to cumulative fitness thinking.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression sites de rencontres noirs les plus populaires model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: F2,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit set, respectively. Fruit set from the intermediate-distance cross-pollinations varied across maternal trees, but with one exception (nearest-neighbor treatment at Tree number 1) indicated optimal fruit set at an outcrossing range of ?2 km (distant neighbor treatment; Fig. 2b). All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect, but no maternal tree effect (Tables 2B and 3B). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was significant only when the selfed treatment was excluded (quadratic regression model: arcsin square root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; Fdos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.